The origin of the word stereotype comes from the French word stéréotype, here does stéréo-, from the Greek word stereo together with the word type from the Late Latin word typus. A stereotype is “…a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people.” (Cardwell, 1996). That was the topic of our last last CTS lesson, we talked about which stereotypes we know, if we were accosted with a stereotype in the past and if we think if it is something positive or negative.
Stereotypes influence our daily lives everyday, we judge people based on their gender, culture or group they belong to (for example age group) and to draw our conclusions from things we do not actually know about. ‘Typical’ stereotypes for,
Men are strong and because of this they do all the work.
Men are the “backbone” of a family
Women are not as smart as a man.
Women can not do a job as good as a man.
The women is at home with the children while the man works
All Jews are greedy from nature.
All Asians are good at math and eat rice to every meal.
All Irish people are alcoholics.
All blonds are unintelligent.
All teenagers are rebels and do not go to school.
All children hate healthy food.
The problem with the term stereotype is that we associate it with something negative, yet is stereotyping nothing else than labeling or naming things. It is the nature of the human being to name the unnamed and this is totally ‘okay’, as long as no one gets hurt.
‘Naming is the act of best knowing a name, of labeling, of creating an identity. It is a means of structuring reality. It imposes pattern on the world that is meaningful in the namer’ (Hope A. Olson, 2002, the power to name).
After talking about different types of stereotypes we got the task to draw some of them here are some examples:
da Rovezzano, B. (1524-1529) No title [Sculpture]. Victoria and Albert Museum London, Sculpture Collection. Available at: http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O1290850/sculpture-da-rovezzano-benedetto/ (Accessed: 02.12.2015)
FIU Libraries (2015) What is Cataloging?. Available at: https://library.fiu.edu/about-us/cataloging/what-cataloging (Accessed: 28.11.2015)
Idaho Commission for Libraries (2015) What is the purpose of cataloging library materials?. Available at: http://lili.org/forlibs/ce/able/course5/08purpose.htm (Accessed: 28.11.2015).
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (2000) ISBD(G): General International Standard Bibliographic Description. Available at: URL (Accessed: 28.11.2015).
Cutter, C. A. (1891) Rules for a dictionary catalogue. Washington: G.P.O.
Hagler, R. (1997) The Bibliographic Record and Information Technology. Ottawa: American Library Association.
Ericksen, H. and Unger, I. (ed.) (2009) The Small Museums Cataloguing Manual. 4th edition. Victoria: Museums Australia.
Harpring, P. (2015) CATALOGING ART AND ARCHITECTURE, Introduction and Application of CDWA and CCO. Available at: https://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/intro_to_cco_cdwa.pdf (Accessed: 02.12.2015).
University of the Arts London (2015) University Archives and Special Collections. Available at: http://archives.arts.ac.uk/Calmview/ (Accessed: 01.12.2015).
Libraries can be organised under different systems, the libraries of the University of the Arts London for example uses the Dewey Decimal System.
Invented and first published by Melvil Dewey in 1876 in the United States, is one of the most used classification systems for library institutions. The Classification system uses numbers and 10 main classes divided into several division, which are again divided into sections.
The 10 main classes (000-900)
example for divisions (from 700-790)
example for sections (from 700-799)
000 – General works, Computer science and Information
Cataloging is a process to ease the conditions of finding a specific information under many. The verb “cataloging” describes here the act of organising information and materials in a logical way.
However, the way of doing this can vary from case to case, due to the fact that different forms of information follow different rules. Yet, a stable content is the way of cataloging itself.
It consist of three main parts:
the vessel (for example: the database, a catalogue etc.)
the data itself (for example: a list, a book or magazine)
the information itself
Organising and cataloging of information in a vessel can happen beneath 5 different under-subjects, also known as the “5 head racks”:
So when we decide to catalogue information we need to make at the same time the decision under which criterium this should happen. At this point we can choose if we create a new system or if we copy a pre-existing system.
However we decide, the organisation of the information itself stays the same. We differentiate here between basic-bibliographical and physical information, better known as the ISBD(G), the General International Standard Bibliographic Description. The ISBD is divided into 8 areas of ordering information, plus punctuation. This system should help to make information over the whole world easier to access, and aides for saving time.
If someone enters a library today, it is well known that there is a system made out of sections, over topics, subjects and so on. They are there to help the visitor to orientate himself, to find his way through all those information. Librarians catalogue medias as books, DVDs, CDs or other visual and audiovisual medias to make our lives simpler. However, those systems variety from institution to institution and that is the problem.
Even if the reader knows where his favourite book is stored in his “home library”, it does not mean that he will find it in another library under the same section.
That could have multiple reasons, either the library has a more or less detailed system or the person who classified the book ,thought it belongs to another section. A book could be for one person belong to fiction, for another to art and for a third party to science. Finally, cataloguing is all about interpreting and personal thinking.
Eventually there are no uniform rules to classify books. The best we could do is to study all possibilities and bear the diversity of interpretation in mind.